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Travelling to Koszalin. Wikipedia about Koszalin

Koszalin ( Français: Koszalin, Spanish: Koszalin, Deutsch: Koszalin, Русский: Кошалин) - (The) city in Poland, situated in West Pomeranian Voivodeship region. According to the latest census, the city population is 107450. Geographical coordinates of Koszalin (WGS84): latitude: 54° 12' 0" N ( 54.2 ), longitude: 16° 11' 0" E ( 16.1833 ).

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Koszalin
Koszalin - Wieża Katedry Niepokalanego Poczęcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny - 2018-02-28 16-12-51.jpg
Pdsoki Pałac Młynarzy - Muzeum Miejskie przy ul Młyńskiej w Koszalinie 03.jpg
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20161009 123814 Richtone(HDR).jpg
Koszalin Rynek Staromiejski w 2014 roku.jpg
  • From top, left to right: Koszalin Cathedral
  • Museum
  • Saint Joseph church
  • Park of the Dukes of Pomerania
  • Market Square
Flag of Koszalin
Flag
Coat of arms of Koszalin
Coat of arms
Koszalin is located in West Pomeranian Voivodeship
Koszalin
Koszalin
Koszalin is located in Poland
Koszalin
Koszalin
Coordinates: 54°12′N 16°11′E / 54.200°N 16.183°E / 54.200; 16.183
Country Poland
Voivodeship West Pomeranian
County city county
Established 11th century
Town rights 1266
Government
 • Mayor Piotr Jedliński
Area
 • Total 98.33 km (37.97 sq mi)
Elevation
32 m (105 ft)
Population
 (31 December 2018)
 • Total 107,321 Decrease (37th)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
75-900, 75-902, 75-007, 75-016
Area code(s) +48 94
Vehicle registration ZK
Climate Cfb
Website www.koszalin.pl

Koszalin ([kɔˈʂalʲin] (About this soundlisten); German: Köslin,Kashubian: Kòszalëno) is a city in northwestern Poland, in Western Pomerania. It is located 12 kilometres (7 miles) south of the Baltic Sea coast, and intersected by the river Dzierżęcinka. Koszalin is also a county-status city and capital of Koszalin County of West Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999. Previously, it was a capital of Koszalin Voivodeship (1950–1998). The current mayor of Koszalin is Piotr Jedliński.

History

Middle Ages

Medieval city walls

According to the Medieval Chronicle of Greater Poland (Kronika Wielkopolska) Koszalin was one of the Pomeranian cities captured and subjugated by Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland in 1107 (other towns included Kołobrzeg, Kamień and Wolin). Afterwards, in the 12th century the area became part of the Griffin-ruled Duchy of Pomerania, a temporary vassal state of Poland, separated from Poland after the fragmentation of Poland into smaller duchies, and from 1181 to 1806 a part of the Holy Roman Empire.

Gothic Koszalin Cathedral

In 1214, Bogislaw II, Duke of Pomerania, made a donation of a village known as Koszalice/Cossalitz by Chełmska Hill in Kołobrzeg Land to the Norbertine monastery in Białoboki near Trzebiatów. New, mostly German, settlers from outside of Pomerania were invited to settle the territory. In 1248, the eastern part of Kołobrzeg Land, including the village, was transferred by Duke Barnim I to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kammin.

On 23 May 1266, Kammin bishop Hermann von Gleichen granted a charter to the village, granting it Lübeck law, local government, autonomy and multiple privileges. When in 1276 the bishops became the sovereign in neighboring Kołobrzeg, they moved their residence there, while the administration of the diocese was done from Koszalin.

The city obtained direct access to the Baltic Sea when it gained the village of Jamno (1331), parts of Lake Jamno, a spit between the lake and the sea and the castle of Unieście in 1353. Thence, it participated in the Baltic Sea trade as a member of the Hanseatic League, which led to several conflicts with the competing seaports of at Kołobrzeg and Darłowo. From 1356 until 1417/1422, the city was part of the Duchy of Pomerania-Wolgast. In 1446 Koszalin fought a victorious battle against the nearby rival city of Kołobrzeg. In 1475 a conflict between the city of Koszalin and the Pomeranian duke Bogislaw X broke out, resulting in the kidnapping and temporary imprisonment of the duke in Koszalin.

Modern Age

Coat of arms from ca. 1400-1800, showing the head of John the Baptist.

As a result of German colonization discriminatory regulations against the indigenous population were introduced. In 1516 local Germans enforced a ban on buying goods from Slavic speakers. It was also forbidden to accept native Slavs to craft guilds.

In 1534 during the Protestant Reformation, the city became mostly Lutheran under the influence of Johannes Bugenhagen. In 1568, Johann Friedrich, Duke of Pomerania and bishop of Cammin, started constructing a residence. After the 1637 death of the last Pomeranian duke, Bogislaw XIV, the city passed to his cousin, Bishop Ernst Bogislaw von Croÿ of Kammin. Occupied by Swedish troops during the Thirty Years' War in 1637, some of the city's inhabitants sought refuge in nearby Poland. The city was granted to Brandenburg-Prussia after the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and the Treaty of Stettin (1653), and with all of Farther Pomerania became part of the Brandenburgian Pomerania.

As part of the Kingdom of Prussia, "Cöslin" was heavily damaged by a fire in 1718, but was rebuilt in the following years. In 1764 on the Chełmska Hill, now located within the city limits, a Pole Jan Gelczewski founded a paper mill that supplied numerous city offices. The city was occupied by French troops in 1807 after the War of the Fourth Coalition. Following the Napoleonic wars, it became the capital of Fürstenthum District (county) and Regierungsbezirk Cöslin (government region) within the Province of Pomerania. The Fürstenthum District was dissolved on 1 September 1872 and replaced with the Cöslin District on December 13. Between 1829 and 1845, a road connecting Koszalin with Szczecin and Gdańsk was built. Part of this road, from Koszalin to the nearby town of Sianów, was built in 1833 by around one hundred former Polish insurgents.

Coat of arms of Köslin from 1800-1939

The town became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the unification of Germany. The railroad from Stettin (Szczecin) through "Cöslin" and Stolp (Słupsk) to Danzig (Gdańsk) was constructed from 1858-78. A military cadet school created by Frederick the Great in 1776 was moved from Kulm (Chełmno) to the city in 1890.

After the Nazis had closed down Dietrich Bonhoeffer's seminar in Finkenwalde (a suburb of Stettin, now Szczecin) in 1937, Bonhoeffer chose the town as one of the sites where he illegally continued to educate vicars of the Confessing Church. During the Second World War Köslin was the site of the first school for the "rocket troops" created on orders of Walter Dornberger, the Wehrmacht's head of the V-2 design and development program. The Nazis brought many prisoners of war and forced labourers to the city, mainly Poles, but also Italians and French.

After World War II

Main Post Office in Koszalin

On 4 March 1945, the city was captured by the Red Army. Under the border changes forced by the Soviet Union in the post-war Potsdam Agreement, Koszalin became part of Poland as part of the so-called Recovered Territories. Most of the town's German population fled or was expelled to the remainder of post-war Germany. The city was resettled by Poles and Kashubians, many of whom had been expelled from Polish territory annexed by the Soviets.

As early as March 1945 a Polish police unit was established, consisting of former forced labourers and prisoners of war, however, the Soviets, still present in the city, plundered local industrial factories in April. From May 1945, life in the destroyed city was being organized, the first post-war schools, shops and service premises were established. In March 1946, the anti-communist Home Army 5th Wilno Brigade was active in Koszalin. In July 1947, the last units of the Soviet Army left Koszalin, and from that time only Polish troops were stationed in the city.

Initially, the city was considered to become the capital of the voivodeship created from the former German province east of the Oder-Neisse line, which nevertheless was assigned to Szczecin (Szczecin voivodeship, 1945–1950). In 1950 this voivodeship was divided into a truncated Szczecin Voivodeship and Koszalin Voivodeship. In years 1950-75 Koszalin was the capital of the enlarged Koszalin Voivodeship sometimes called Middle Pomerania due to becoming the fastest growing city in Poland. In years 1975-98 it was the capital of the smaller Koszalin Voivodeship.

As a result of the Local Government Reorganization Act (1998) Koszalin became part of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship (effective 1 January 1999) regardless of an earlier proposal for a new Middle Pomeranian Voivodeship covering approximately the area of former Koszalin Voivodeship (1950–75).

Landmarks

The city borders on Chełmska Hill (Polish: Góra Chełmska), a site of pagan worship in prehistory, and upon which is now built the tower "sanctuary of the covenant", which was consecrated by Pope John Paul II in 1991, and is currently a pilgrimage site. Also an observation is located on the hill.

Koszalin's most distinctive landmark is the Gothic St. Mary's Cathedral, dating from the early 14th century. Positioned in front of the cathedral is a monument commemorating John Paul II's visit to the city.

Gallery

Demographics

Before World War II the population of the town was composed of Protestants, Jews and Catholics.

Number of inhabitants in years 1740-2017
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1740 2,535 —    
1782 2,933 +0.35%
1791 3,071 +0.51%
1794 3,286 +2.28%
1812 3,802 +0.81%
1816 4,636 +5.08%
1831 6,541 +2.32%
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1843 8,114 +1.81%
1852 9,398 +1.65%
1861 11,303 +2.07%
1900 20,417 +1.53%
1925 28,810 +1.39%
1940 33,587 +1.03%
1950 18,690 −5.69%
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1960 44,449 +9.05%
1970 62,212 +3.42%
1980 95,490 +4.38%
1990 109,002 +1.33%
2000 108,899 −0.01%
2010 107,948 −0.09%
2017 107,670 −0.04%

Climate

The climate is oceanic (Köppen: Cfb) with some humid continental characteristics (Dfb), usually categorized if the 0 °C isotherm is used (for the same classification). Being in Western Pomerania and near the Baltic Sea, it has a much more moderate climate than the others large Polish cities. The summers are warm and practically never hot as in the south and the winters are often more moderate than the northeast and east, although still cold, yet it is not as mild as Western Europe. Daily averages below freezing point can be found in January and February, while in the summer they are between 15 and 16 °C, relatively cool. The average annual precipitation is 704 mm, distributed during the year. Koszalin is one of the sunniest cities in the country.

Notable people

  • Daniel Liczko (1615- 1662), Sergeant of the Dutch colonial army in New Amsterdam
  • Ewald Christian von Kleist (1715–1759) a German poet and cavalry officer
  • Rudolf Clausius (1822–1888) German physicist and mathematician and a founder of thermodynamics
  • Karl Adolf Lorenz (1837–1923), conductor, composer and music pedagogue
  • Hans Grade (1879–1946), aviation pioneer
  • Fritz von Brodowski (1886–1944) a German army general, controversially killed while in French custody during WWII
  • Georg Wendt (1889–1948) a German politician, member of the SPD and SED
  • Friedrich-Karl Burckhardt (1889-1962), World War I flying ace
  • Peter von Heydebreck (1889–1934), NSDAP politician
  • Paul Dahlke (1904–1984) a German stage and film actor
  • Heinz Pollay (1908–1979) a German dressage horse rider, competed in the 1936 and 1952 Summer Olympics
  • Hans-Joachim Preil (1923–1999), actor and comedian
  • Leslie Brent (born 1925), immunologist and zoologist
  • Waltraud Nowarra (1940–2007) a German chess player
  • Vladimir Berdnikov (born 1946), painter and glass artist
  • Mirosław Okoński (born 1958), footballer, played 418 pro games and 29 for Poland
  • Kuba Wojewódzki (born 1963) a Polish journalist, TV personality, drummer and comedian
  • Mirosław Trzeciak (born 1968), footballer, director of sport development of Legia Warszawa
  • Marcin Horbacz (born 1974) a Polish modern pentathlete, competed at the 2008 Summer Olympics
  • Maciej Stachowiak (born 1976), software engineer at Apple Inc.
  • Kasia Cerekwicka (born 1980) a Polish pop singer
  • Paweł Spisak (born 1981) a Polish equestrian, competed at the 2004, 2008, 2012 and 2016 Summer Olympics
  • Sebastian Mila (born 1982), footballer
  • Joanna Majdan (born 1988), chess player

Sports

A multi-purpose indoor arena HWS Koszalin

  • AZS Koszalin - men's basketball team, playing in the Polish Basketball League (the top division)
  • AZS Politechnika Koszalin - women's handball team playing in Polish Ekstraklasa Women's Handball League: 3rd place in 1st league in 2003/2004 season; promoted to Premiership in 2004/2005 season.
  • Gwardia Koszalin - football team, currently playing in the fourth Polish division.
  • Bałtyk Koszalin - football team, currently playing in the fourth Polish division
  • Tennis - Bałtyk Koszalin
  • Rugby - Rugby Club Koszalin
  • Motorsport - Klub Motor Sport Koszalin
  • American Football - Korsarze Koszalin

Major corporations

  • Zakład Energetyczny Koszalin SA
  • Brok Brewery SA
  • JAAN Nordglass Autoglass
  • TWIP Foundation

Education

Stanisław Dubois High School in Koszalin

  • Koszalin University of Technology (Politechnika Koszalińska)
  • Baltic College (Bałtycka Wyższa Szkoła Humanistyczna)
  • Air Force training center (Centrum Szkolenia Sił Powietrznych im. Romualda Traugutta)
  • Koszalin University of Humanities (Koszalińska Wyższa Szkoła Nauk Humanistycznych)
  • State Higher Vocational School in Koszalin (Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa w Koszalinie)
  • Major Seminary of the Diocese of Koszalin-Kolobrzeska in Koszalin (Wyższe Seminarium Duchowne Diecezji Koszalińsko-Kołobrzeskiej w Koszalinie)
  • Team State School of Music (Zespół Państwowych Szkół Muzycznych im. Grażyny Bacewicz)
  • School Arts Team (Zespół Szkół Plastycznych im. Władysława Hasiora)
  • 1st. High School Stanisława Dubois (Dubois or colloquially Dibulec)
  • 2nd. High School Władysława Broniewskiego (colloquially Bronek)
  • 5th. High School Stanisława Lema (Jednosci)
  • 6th. High School Cypriana Norwida (Podgorna)

International relations

Koszalin is twinned with:

See also

  • Museum of Vladimir Vysotsky in Koszalin
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