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Travelling to Voronezh. Wikipedia about Voronezh

Voronezh ( Français: Voronej, Spanish: Vorónezh, Deutsch: Woronesch, Русский: Воронеж) - (The) city in Russia, situated in Voronezh Oblast region. According to the latest census, the city population is 848752. Geographical coordinates of Voronezh (WGS84): latitude: 51° 40' 12" N ( 51.6699 ), longitude: 39° 11' 32" E ( 39.1923 ).

Useful information about Voronezh from Gulliway.

We recommend you to visit the following pages about travelling to Voronezh: Interactive map of Voronezh. The most popular sights and events are: Памятник Петру I (Воронеж), Успенский Адмиралтейский храм, Покровский кафедральный собор (Воронеж), Успенская семинарская церковь, Благовещенский собор (Воронеж) .
Your trip will be even more exciting if you include following cities journey to Verkhovazhye on your route .

Wikipedia about Voronezh: Voronezh on our wiki pages.

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View of Voronezh
View of Voronezh
Flag of Voronezh
Coat of arms of Voronezh
Coat of arms
Location of Voronezh
Voronezh is located in Russia
Location of Voronezh
Voronezh is located in Voronezh Oblast
Voronezh (Voronezh Oblast)
Coordinates: 51°40′18″N 39°12′38″E / 51.67167°N 39.21056°E / 51.67167; 39.21056
Country Russia
Federal subject Voronezh Oblast
Founded 1585 or much earlier
City status since 1585
 • Body City Duma
 • Mayor Vadim Kstenin
 • Total 601 km (232 sq mi)
154 m (505 ft)
 (2010 Census)
 • Total 889,680
 • Estimate 
1,047,549 (+17.7%)
 • Rank 15th in 2010
 • Density 1,500/km (3,800/sq mi)
Administrative status
 • Subordinated to Voronezh Urban Okrug
 • Capital of Voronezh Oblast, Voronezh Urban Okrug
Municipal status
 • Urban okrug Voronezh Urban Okrug
 • Capital of Voronezh Urban Okrug
Time zone UTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata)
Postal code(s)
Dialing code(s) +7 473
OKTMO ID 20701000001
City Day Third Saturday of September
Twin towns Charlotte, Chongqing, Brno, Gomel, Wesermarsch, Sliven, León, Gorzów WielkopolskiEdit this on Wikidata
Website www.voronezh-city.ru

Voronezh (Russian: Воронеж, IPA: [vɐˈronʲɪʂ]), also romanized as Voronež, is a city and the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast, Russia, straddling the Voronezh River and located 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) from where it flows into the Don. The city sits on the Southeastern Railway, which connects European Russia with the Urals and Siberia, the Caucasus and Ukraine, and the M4 highway (Moscow–Voronezh–Rostov-on-DonNovorossiysk). Its population in 2016 was estimated to be 1,032,895; up from 889,680 recorded in the 2010 Census; it is the fourteenth most populous city in the country.


Foundation and name

Center of Voronezh at night

The first chronicle references to the word "Voronezh" are dated 1177, when the Ryazan prince Yaropolk, having lost the battle, fled "to Voronozh" and there was moving "from hail into hail." Modern data of archeology and history interpret Voronezh as a geographical region, which included the Voronezh river (tributary of the Don) and a number of settlements. In the lower reaches of the river, an unique Slavic town-planning complex of the 8th – early 11th century was discovered, which covered the territory of the present city of Voronezh and its environs (about 42 km long, about 13 forts and many unfortified villages). By the 12th – 13th centuries, most of the old “hails” were desolate, but new settlements appeared upstream, closer to Ryazan.

For many years, the hypothesis of the Soviet historian Vladimir Zagorovsky dominated: he produced the toponym "Voronezh" from the hypothetical Slavic personal name Voroneg. This man allegedly gave the name of a small town in the Chernigov Principality (now the village of Voronezh in Ukraine). Later, in the XI or XII centuries, the settlers were able to "transfer" this name to the Don region, where they named the second city Voronezh, and the river got its name from the city. However, now many researchers criticize the hypothesis, since in reality neither the name of Voroneg nor the second city was revealed, and usually the names of Russian cities repeated the names of the rivers, but not vice versa.

The linguistic comparative analysis of the name "Voronezh" was carried out by the Khovansky Foundation in 2009. There is an indication of the place names of many countries in Eurasia, which may partly be not only similar in sound, but also united by common Indo-European languages: Varanasi, Varna, Verona, Brno, etc.

A comprehensive scientific analysis was conducted in 2015–2016 by the historian Pavel Popov. His conclusion: "Voronezh" is a probable Slavic macrotoponym associated with outstanding signs of nature, has a root voron- (from the proto-Slavic vorn) in the meaning of "black, dark" and the suffix -ezh (-azh, -ozh). It was not “transferred” and in the 8th - 9th centuries it marked a vast territory covered with black forests (oak forests) - from the mouth of the Voronezh river to the Voronozhsky annalistic forests in the middle and upper reaches of the river, and in the west to the Don (many forests were cut down). The historian believes that the main "city" of the early town-planning complex could repeat the name of the region – Voronezh. Now the hillfort is located in the administrative part of the modern city, in the Voronezh upland oak forest. This is one of Europe's largest ancient Slavic hillforts, the area of which – more than 9 hectares – 13 times the area of the main settlement in Kiev before the baptism of Rus.

Folk etymology claims the name comes from combining the Russian words for raven (ворон) and hedgehog (еж) into Воронеж. According to this explanation two Slavic tribes named after the animals used this combination to name the river which later in turn provided the name for a settlement. There is not believed to be any scientific support for this explanation.

In the 16th century, the Middle Don basin, including the Voronezh river, was gradually conquered by Muscovy from the Nogai Horde (a successor state of the Golden Horde), and the current city of Voronezh was established in 1585 by Feodor I as a fort protecting the Muravsky Trail trade route against the raids of the Nogai and Crimean Tatars.The city was named after the river .

17th to 20th centuries

A monument to Peter the Great

Voronezh. Ship Museum Goto Predestinatsia

In the 17th century, Voronezh gradually evolved into a sizable town.Weronecz is shown on the Worona river in Resania in Joan Blaeu's map of 1645.Peter the Great built a dockyard in Voronezh where the Azov Flotilla was constructed for the Azov campaigns in 1695 and 1696. This fleet, the first ever built in Russia, included the first Russian ship of the line, Goto Predestinatsia. The Orthodox diocese of Voronezh was instituted in 1682 and its first bishop, Mitrofan of Voronezh, was later proclaimed the town's patron saint.

View of Voronezh in the 18th century

Owing to the Voronezh Admiralty Wharf, for a short time, Voronezh became the largest city of South Russia and the economic center of a large and fertile region. In 1711, it was made the seat of the Azov Governorate, which eventually morphed into the Voronezh Governorate.

In the 19th century, Voronezh was a center of the Central Black Earth Region. Manufacturing industry (mills, tallow-melting, butter-making, soap, leather, and other works) as well as bread, cattle, suet, and the hair trade developed in the town. A railway connected Voronezh with Moscow in 1868 and Rostov-on-Don in 1871.

During World War II, Voronezh was the scene of fierce fighting between Russian and combined Axis troops. The Germans used it as a staging area for their attack on Stalingrad, and made it a key crossing point on the Don River. In June 1941, two BM-13 (Fighting machine #13 Katyusha) artillery installations were built at the Voronezh excavator factory. In July, the construction of Katyushas was rationalized so that their manufacture became easier and the time of volley repetition was shortened from five minutes to fifteen seconds. More than 300 BM-13 units manufactured in Voronezh were used in a counterattack near Moscow in December 1941. In October 22, 1941, the advance of the German troops prompted the establishment of a defense committee in the city. On November 7, 1941, there was a troop parade, devoted to the anniversary of the October Revolution. Only three such parades were organized that year: in Moscow, Kuybyshev, and Voronezh. In late June 1942, the city was attacked by German and Hungarian forces. In response, Soviet forces formed the Voronezh Front. By July 6, the German army occupied the western river-bank suburbs before being subjected to a fierce Soviet counter-attack. By July 24 the frontline had stabilised along the Voronezh River as the German forces continued southeast into the Great Bend of the Don. The attack on Voronezh represented the first phase of the German Army's 1942 campaign in the Soviet Union, codenamed Case Blue.

Until January 25, 1943, parts of the Second German Army and the Second Hungarian Army occupied west part of Voronezh. During Operation Little Saturn, the Ostrogozhsk–Rossosh Offensive, and the Voronezhsko-Kastornenskoy Offensive, the Voronezh Front exacted heavy casualties on Axis forces. On January 25, 1943, Voronezh was liberated after ten days of combat. During the war the city was almost completely ruined, with 92% of all buildings destroyed.


By 1950, Voronezh had been rebuilt. Most buildings and historical monuments were repaired. It was also the location of a prestigious Suvorov Military School, a boarding school for young boys who were considered to be prospective military officers, many of whom had been orphaned by war.

In 1950–1960, new factories were established: a tire factory, a machine-tool factory, a factory of heavy mechanical pressing, and others.In 1968, Serial production of the Tupolev Tu-144 supersonic plane was established at the Voronezh Aviation factory. In October 1977, the first Soviet domestic wide-body plane, Ilyushin Il-86, was built there.

In 1989, TASS published details of an alleged UFO landing in the city's park and purported encounters with extraterrestrial beings reported by a number of children. A Russian scientist that was cited in initial TASS reports later told the Associated Press that he was misquoted, cautioning, "Don't believe all you hear from TASS," and "We never gave them part of what they published", and a TASS correspondent admitted the possibility that some "make-believe" had been added to the TASS story, saying, "I think there is a certain portion of truth, but it is not excluded that there is also fantasizing".


From 10 to 17 September 2011, Voronezh celebrated its 425th anniversary. The anniversary of the city was given the status of a federal scale celebration that helped attract large investments from the federal and regional budgets for development.

On December 17, 2012, Voronezh became the fifteenth city in Russia with a population of over one million people.

Today Voronezh is the economic, industrial, cultural, and scientific center of the Central Black Earth Region.

Administrative and municipal status

The Mayor's office of Voronezh

Administrative districts of Voronezh

Voronezh is the administrative center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Voronezh Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, this administrative unit also has urban okrug status.

City divisions

The city is divided into six administrative districts:

  • 1. Zheleznodorozhny (183,17 km²)
  • 2. Tsentralny (63,96 km²)
  • 3. Kominternovsky (47,41 km²)
  • 4. Leninsky (18,53 km²)
  • 5. Sovetsky (156,6 km²)
  • 6. Levoberezhny (123,89 km²)


Demographic Evolution
1615 1777 1840 1897 1923 1939 1959 1973 1989 1997
7,000 13,000 43,800 80,599 95,000 326,932 447,164 713,000 886,844 905,000
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
889,680 979,884 991,269 1,003,638 1,014,610 1,023,570 1,032,895

Note: 1926–1970 and 2016 are population estimates; 1989 is the Soviet Census; 2002 and 2010 are census urban population only.


The leading sectors of the urban economy in the 20th century were mechanical engineering, metalworking, the electronics industry and the food industry.

In the city are such companies as:

  • Voronezh Aircraft Production Association (where, amongst other types, the Tupolev Tu-144 was built)

Tupolev Tu-144

  • Voronezhselmash (agricultural engineering)
  • Sozvezdie (headquarter, JSC Concern “Sozvezdie”, in 1958 the world's first created mobile telephony and wireless telephone Altai
  • Verofarm (pharmaceutics, owner Abbott Laboratories),
  • Voronezh Mechanical Plant (production of missile and aircraft engines, oil and gas equipment)
  • Mining Machinery Holding - RUDGORMASH (production of drilling, mineral processing and mining equipment)
  • VNiiPM Research Institute of Semiconductor Engineering (equipment for plasma-chemical processes, technical-chemical equipment for liquid operations, water treatment equipment)
  • KBKhA Chemical Automatics Design Bureau with notable products:.
  • Pirelli Voronezh.

On the territory of the city district government Maslovka Voronezh region with the support of the Investment Fund of Russia, is implementing a project to create an industrial park, "Maslowski", to accommodate more than 100 new businesses, including the transformer factory of Siemens. On September 7, 2011 in Voronezh there opened a Global network operation center of Nokia Siemens Networks, which was the fifth in the world and the first in Russia.


In 2014, 926,000 square meters of housing was delivered.

Clusters of Voronezh

In clusters of tax incentives and different preferences, the full support of the authorities.A cluster of Oil and Gas Equipment, Radio-electronic cluster, Furniture cluster, IT cluster, Cluster aircraft, Cluster Electromechanics, Transport and logistics cluster, Cluster building materials and technologies.



The city is served by the Voronezh International Airport, which is located north of the city and is home to Polet Airlines. Voronezh is also home to the Pridacha Airport, a part of a major aircraft manufacturing facility VASO (Voronezhskoye Aktsionernoye Samoletostroitelnoye Obshchestvo, Voronezh aircraft production association) where the Tupolev Tu-144 (known in the West as the "Concordski"), was built and the only operational unit is still stored. Voronezh also hosts the Voronezh Malshevo air force base in the southwest of the city, which, according to a Natural Resources Defense Council report, houses nuclear bombers.


Main entrance to Voronezh-1 Railway Station

Since 1868, there is a railway connection between Voronezh and Moscow. Rail services form a part of the South Eastern Railway of the Russian Railways. Destinations served direct from Voronezh include Moscow, Kiev, Kursk, Novorossiysk, Sochi, and Tambov.The main train station is called Voronezh-1 Railway Station and is located in the center of the city.


There are three Bus Stations in Voronezh that connect the city with a large number of destinations including Moscow, Belgorod, Lipetsk, Volgograd, Rostov-on-Don, Astrakhan and many more.


Voronezh experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfb) with long, cold winters and short, warm summers.

Education and culture

Snow at night in a Voronezh park

The city has seven theaters, twelve museums, a number of movie theaters, a philharmonic hall, and a circus. It is also a major center of higher education in central Russia. The main educational facilities include:

  • Voronezh State University
  • Voronezh State Technical University
  • Voronezh State University of Architecture and Construction
  • Voronezh State Pedagogical University
  • Voronezh State Agricultural University
  • Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies
  • Voronezh State Medical University named after N. N. Burdenko
  • Voronezh State Academy of Arts
  • Voronezh State University of Forestry and Technologies named after G.F. Morozov
  • Voronezh State Institute of Physical Training
  • Voronezh Institute of Russia's Home Affairs Ministry
  • Voronezh Military Aviation Engineering University
  • Voronezh Institute of High Technologies
  • Voronezh Air Force Academy named after Prof. Zhukovsky and Gagarin
  • Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (Voronezh branch)
  • Russian State University of Justice
  • Admiral Makarov State University of Sea and River Fleet (Voronezh branch)
  • International Institute of Computer Technologies
  • Voronezh Institute of Economics and Law

and a number of other affiliate and private-funded institutes and universities. There are 2000 schools within the city.


  • Voronezh Chamber Theatre
  • Koltsov Academic Drama Theater
  • Voronezh State Opera and Ballet Theatre
  • Shut Puppet Theater


Platonov International Arts Festival


Club Sport Founded Current League League
Fakel Voronezh Football 1947 Russian Football National League 2nd Tsentralnyi Profsoyuz Stadion
Energy Voronezh Football 1989 Women's Premier League 1st Rudgormash Stadium
Buran Voronezh Ice Hockey 1977 Higher Hockey League 2nd Yubileyny Sports Palace
VC Voronezh Volleyball 2006 Women's Higher Volleyball League A 2nd Kristall Sports Complex


Annunciation Orthodox Cathedral in Voronezh

Orthodox Christianity is the prevalent religion in Voronezh.

There is an orthodox Jewish community in Voronezh, with a synagogue located on Stankevicha Street.

Notable people

Nikolai Ge. Mary, sister of Lazarus, meets Jesus who is going to their house

  • Nikolay Basov, physicist
  • Ivan Bunin, writer
  • Alexey Khovansky, editor
  • Arkady Davidowitz, writer and aphorist
  • Pavel Cherenkov, physicist
  • Kirill Gerstein, musician
  • Mikhail Tsvet, botanist
  • Konstantin Feoktistov, cosmonaut and engineer
  • Poets and writers such as Platonov, Koltsov, Ivan S. Nikitin, Marshak, Peskov, Troepolsky;
  • Painters Kramskoi, Ge, Kuprin
  • Valerian Albanov, navigator and polar explorer
  • Alexander Litvinenko, political dissident
  • Grigory Sanakoev, chess player
  • Yelena Davydova and Aleksandr Tkachyov, gymnasts
  • Yevgeny Lapinsky, Olympic volleyball player
  • Valentina Popova, weightlifter
  • Dmitri Sautin, diver
  • Volin, anarchist
  • Serge Voronoff, surgeon
  • Osip Mandelstam, poet
  • Vladimir Patkin, Olympic volleyball player
  • Andrei Platonov, writer
  • Sektor Gaza, punk band
  • Mitrofan Pyatnitsky, musician
  • Viktoria Komova, Olympic gymnast
  • Eduard Vorganov, professional cyclist
  • Igor Samsonov, painter
  • Anna Kataeva, writer

Sister Cities


Date   Sister City
1968 Czech Republic Brno, Czech Republic
1989 Germany Wesermarsch, Lower Saxony, Germany
1991 United States Charlotte, North Carolina, United States
1992 China Chongqing, China
1995 Bulgaria Sliven, Bulgaria
1996 Spain León, Castile and León, Spain


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